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Both men and women may experience infertility because of various reasons. Often, The Risk Factors that affect fertility, detrimentally, are the same in both men and women. These risk factors, that trigger infertility causes, include:


The quality of eggs is a big consideration in a woman's fertility. As she ages increases, the quality of eggs decreases. The decline in egg quality becomes more marked, after a woman reaches the mid 30s. In older women, infertility is usually more common. So the younger a woman is, the more fertile she tends to be. Men over 40 years also tend to be less fertile than younger men

Substance Abuse

Smoking and drinking may decrease fertility in both the partners. Both tobacco and alcohol may also reduce possible benefits of fertility treatments. They are considered to be infertility causes that can be controlled completely by men and women. Studies have shown an increased instance of miscarriages in women who smoke

Low sperm count and erectile dysfunction are often attributed to smoking in men. Women are advised to avoid alcohol completely, when they are planning to get pregnant, or they have just discovered their pregnancy. In men, heavy alcohol use decreases both sperm count and its motility.

Not having an ideal weight

Being overweight or underweight can wreak havoc on your body's mechanisms, especially the production of hormones. An inactive lifestyle can make a person overweight, and that can affect a man's testosterone levels and subsequently the sperm count. Women are more prone to developing hypertension and other problems, which not only decrease fertility, but also threaten the pregnancy once the woman conceives.

Being underweight is equally unhealthy. Women who are underweight may experience many fertility problems. Some women, who are underweight due to eating disorders, may receive poor nutrition and may have poor health. This may mean that their reproductive system may fail to function optimally. When hormonal production is thrown off balance, it can be one of the most severe infertility causes.


Read More- Infertility Causes 

How to Avoid These Risks?

  • Having and maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the key to remaining healthy and fertile
  • Both men and women should not only maintain an active lifestyle, but should also make healthier eating choices. There is no substitute for proper nutrition
  • Managing stress is often difficult in our times, but taking time out to relax is very necessary too – especially if you are planning to start a family. Men and women, who are stressed, are often not able to conceive even if there are no biological problems.

Unexplained Infertility 

Often, doctors are not able to explain infertility because there is a complete absence of all infertility causes. Such unexplained infertility may be caused due to poor health and stress. Maintaining good sexual health and avoiding both alcohol and tobacco, are some of the other lifestyle choices you can make, to improve fertility and decrease risk of infertility.


Infertility causes may be known or unknown. However, there are some risk factors which may increase the likelihood of developing infertility. Be mindful of these risks, and have a healthier lifestyle to remain healthy and fertile.

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Authored by : Dr Aniruddha Malpani, MD and reviewed by Dr Anjali Malpani.

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